Even so, within a few years of the creation of the label ADD, concern arose that the important features of hyperactivity and impulse control were being de-emphasized when in fact they were critically important to differentiating the disorder from other conditions and to predicting later developmental risks (Barkley, 2006; Barkley et al., 2008; Weiss & Hechtman, 1993). In 1987, the disorder was renamed as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987), and a single list of items incorporating all three symptoms was specified. By the 1950s-1970s, focus shifted away from etiology and toward the more specific behavior of hyperactivity and poor impulse control characterizing these children, reflected in labels such as “hyperkinetic impulse disorder” or “hyperactive child syndrome” (Burks, 1960; Chess, 1960). The disorder was thought to arise from cortical overstimulation due to poor thalamic filtering of stimuli entering the brain (Knobel, Wolman, & Mason, 1959; Laufer, Denhoff, & Solomons, 1957).
This discrepancy in perspectives has been converging over the last decades as is evident in the similarity of the DSM-IV criteria (see below) with those of ICD-10 (World Health Organization, 1994). Psychosocial and medical histories of stimulant-treated children. Significant, historically, was the distinction in DSM-III between two types of ADD: those with hyperactivity and those without it. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1065-1079. Little research existed at the time on the latter subtype that would have supported such a distinction being made in an official and increasingly prestigious diagnostic taxonomy. Research was demonstrating that under conditions of continuous reward, the performances of ADHD children were often indistinguishable from normal children on various lab tasks but when reinforcement patterns shifted to partial reward or to extinction (no reward) conditions, children with ADHD showed significant declines in their performance (Douglas & Parry, 1983, 1994; Parry & Douglas, 1983). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 271-283. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 13-22. It was also observed that deficits in the control of behavior by rules characterized these children (Barkley, 1989a). Humphries, T., Koltun, H., Malone, M., & Roberts, W. Teacher-identified oral language difficulties among boys with attention problems.